Happy Monday! I hope everyone who celebrated Easter had a lovely holiday. The weather by us in New York made the day even more enjoyable.
This chapter gives us a lot to think about in regards to several of our characters. First, we learn about Mr. Collins’ intentions towards the Bennet daughters and his mainly economical and unromantic purposes in deciding to propose marriage to one of the Bennet sisters.
We also get to see how prickly things stand between George Wickham and Mr. Darcy, yet only Elizabeth seems to notice the apparent friction and ill tidings between the two men.
Finally, we meet Mrs. Phillips for a bit and learn some more about Mrs. Bennet’s sister, which I believe is important in understanding Mrs. Bennet and the influences that have surrounded the Bennet sisters throughout their lives in Meryton.
Mr. Collins was not a sensible man, and the deficiency of nature had been but little assisted by education or society; the greatest part of his life having been spent under the guidance of an illiterate and miserly father; and though he belonged to one of the universities, he had merely kept the necessary terms, without forming at it any useful acquaintance. The subjection in which his father had brought him up had given him originally great humility of manner; but it was now a good deal counteracted by the self-conceit of a weak head, living in retirement, and the consequential feelings of early and unexpected prosperity. A fortunate chance had recommended him to Lady Catherine de Bourgh when the living of Hunsford was vacant; and the respect which he felt for her high rank, and his veneration for her as his patroness, mingling with a very good opinion of himself, of his authority as a clergyman, and his right as a rector, made him altogether a mixture of pride and obsequiousness, self-importance and humility.
Having now a good house and a very sufficient income, he intended to marry; and in seeking a reconciliation with the Longbourn family he had a wife in view, as he meant to choose one of the daughters, if he found them as handsome and amiable as they were represented by common report. This was his plan of amends—of atonement—for inheriting their father’s estate; and he thought it an excellent one, full of eligibility and suitableness, and excessively generous and disinterested on his own part.
His plan did not vary on seeing them. Miss Bennet’s lovely face confirmed his views, and established all his strictest notions of what was due to seniority; and for the first evening she was his settled choice. The next morning, however, made an alteration; for in a quarter of an hour’s tete-a-tete with Mrs. Bennet before breakfast, a conversation beginning with his parsonage-house, and leading naturally to the avowal of his hopes, that a mistress might be found for it at Longbourn, produced from her, amid very complaisant smiles and general encouragement, a caution against the very Jane he had fixed on. “As to her younger daughters, she could not take upon her to say—she could not positively answer—but she did not know of any prepossession; her eldest daughter, she must just mention—she felt it incumbent on her to hint, was likely to be very soon engaged.”
Mr. Collins had only to change from Jane to Elizabeth—and it was soon done—done while Mrs. Bennet was stirring the fire. Elizabeth, equally next to Jane in birth and beauty, succeeded her of course.
Mrs. Bennet treasured up the hint, and trusted that she might soon have two daughters married; and the man whom she could not bear to speak of the day before was now high in her good graces.
Lydia’s intention of walking to Meryton was not forgotten; every sister except Mary agreed to go with her; and Mr. Collins was to attend them, at the request of Mr. Bennet, who was most anxious to get rid of him, and have his library to himself; for thither Mr. Collins had followed him after breakfast; and there he would continue, nominally engaged with one of the largest folios in the collection, but really talking to Mr. Bennet, with little cessation, of his house and garden at Hunsford. Such doings discomposed Mr. Bennet exceedingly. In his library he had been always sure of leisure and tranquillity; and though prepared, as he told Elizabeth, to meet with folly and conceit in every other room of the house, he was used to be free from them there; his civility, therefore, was most prompt in inviting Mr. Collins to join his daughters in their walk; and Mr. Collins, being in fact much better fitted for a walker than a reader, was extremely pleased to close his large book, and go.
In pompous nothings on his side, and civil assents on that of his cousins, their time passed till they entered Meryton. The attention of the younger ones was then no longer to be gained by him. Their eyes were immediately wandering up in the street in quest of the officers, and nothing less than a very smart bonnet indeed, or a really new muslin in a shop window, could recall them.
But the attention of every lady was soon caught by a young man, whom they had never seen before, of most gentlemanlike appearance, walking with another officer on the other side of the way. The officer was the very Mr. Denny concerning whose return from London Lydia came to inquire, and he bowed as they passed. All were struck with the stranger’s air, all wondered who he could be; and Kitty and Lydia, determined if possible to find out, led the way across the street, under pretense of wanting something in an opposite shop, and fortunately had just gained the pavement when the two gentlemen, turning back, had reached the same spot. Mr. Denny addressed them directly, and entreated permission to introduce his friend, Mr. Wickham, who had returned with him the day before from town, and he was happy to say had accepted a commission in their corps. This was exactly as it should be; for the young man wanted only regimentals to make him completely charming. His appearance was greatly in his favour; he had all the best part of beauty, a fine countenance, a good figure, and very pleasing address.
The introduction was followed up on his side by a happy readiness of conversation—a readiness at the same time perfectly correct and unassuming; and the whole party were still standing and talking together very agreeably, when the sound of horses drew their notice, and Darcy and Bingley were seen riding down the street. On distinguishing the ladies of the group, the two gentlemen came directly towards them, and began the usual civilities. Bingley was the principal spokesman, and Miss Bennet the principal object. He was then, he said, on his way to Longbourn on purpose to inquire after her. Mr. Darcy corroborated it with a bow, and was beginning to determine not to fix his eyes on Elizabeth, when they were suddenly arrested by the sight of the stranger, and Elizabeth happening to see the countenance of both as they looked at each other, was all astonishment at the effect of the meeting. Both changed colour, one looked white, the other red. Mr. Wickham, after a few moments, touched his hat—a salutation which Mr. Darcy just deigned to return. What could be the meaning of it? It was impossible to imagine; it was impossible not to long to know.
In another minute, Mr. Bingley, but without seeming to have noticed what passed, took leave and rode on with his friend.
Mr. Denny and Mr. Wickham walked with the young ladies to the door of Mr. Phillip’s house, and then made their bows, in spite of Miss Lydia’s pressing entreaties that they should come in, and even in spite of Mrs. Phillips’s throwing up the parlour window and loudly seconding the invitation.
Mrs. Phillips was always glad to see her nieces; and the two eldest, from their recent absence, were particularly welcome, and she was eagerly expressing her surprise at their sudden return home, which, as their own carriage had not fetched them, she should have known nothing about, if she had not happened to see Mr. Jones’s shop-boy in the street, who had told her that they were not to send any more draughts to Netherfield because the Miss Bennets were come away, when her civility was claimed towards Mr. Collins by Jane’s introduction of him. She received him with her very best politeness, which he returned with as much more, apologising for his intrusion, without any previous acquaintance with her, which he could not help flattering himself, however, might be justified by his relationship to the young ladies who introduced him to her notice. Mrs. Phillips was quite awed by such an excess of good breeding; but her contemplation of one stranger was soon put to an end by exclamations and inquiries about the other; of whom, however, she could only tell her nieces what they already knew, that Mr. Denny had brought him from London, and that he was to have a lieutenant’s commission in the ——shire. She had been watching him the last hour, she said, as he walked up and down the street, and had Mr. Wickham appeared, Kitty and Lydia would certainly have continued the occupation, but unluckily no one passed windows now except a few of the officers, who, in comparison with the stranger, were become “stupid, disagreeable fellows.” Some of them were to dine with the Phillipses the next day, and their aunt promised to make her husband call on Mr. Wickham, and give him an invitation also, if the family from Longbourn would come in the evening. This was agreed to, and Mrs. Phillips protested that they would have a nice comfortable noisy game of lottery tickets, and a little bit of hot supper afterwards. The prospect of such delights was very cheering, and they parted in mutual good spirits. Mr. Collins repeated his apologies in quitting the room, and was assured with unwearying civility that they were perfectly needless.
As they walked home, Elizabeth related to Jane what she had seen pass between the two gentlemen; but though Jane would have defended either or both, had they appeared to be in the wrong, she could no more explain such behaviour than her sister.
Mr. Collins on his return highly gratified Mrs. Bennet by admiring Mrs. Phillips’s manners and politeness. He protested that, except Lady Catherine and her daughter, he had never seen a more elegant woman; for she had not only received him with the utmost civility, but even pointedly included him in her invitation for the next evening, although utterly unknown to her before. Something, he supposed, might be attributed to his connection with them, but yet he had never met with so much attention in the whole course of his life.
I’d love to hear what struck you the most about this chapter. Austen delves into so many important things gong on right now with our characters. First, we learn more about Mr. Collins and the influences that shaped his earlier life. Austen writes, “the greatest part of his life having been spent under the guidance of an illiterate and miserly father,” which was sure to play a large role is shaping his character. The concepts of nature vs. nurture are alluded to here and one can spend time thinking about the things that shaped Mr. Collins’ character. His ideas about marriage are centered around economic means and probably a bit about convenience, by selecting a Bennet sister to take as his wife. We know his heart isn’t engaged (and probably never will be) in his selection, especially when he shifts from deciding to offer for Jane to offering for Elizabeth as his future wife, without nearly a blink of his eye.
In Laurie Kaplan’s JASNA article, “The Two Gentleman of Derbyshire: From Nature to Nurture,”“The Two Gentleman from Derbyshire: Nature vs. Nurture,” she describes how Austen was influenced by Shakespeare’s story, “The Two Gentleman of Verona,” which helped her lay the foundation of Darcy and Wickham’s relationship. She states that “In The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Shakespeare underscores the ironic disparity between what the Duke refers to as the difference between “a gentleman of worth” (nurture) and “a gentleman of blood” (3.1.107; 121) (nature),4 and it is this discrepancy between perceived perfections and actual behavior that Austen dissects in Pride and Prejudice.”
In Chapter 15, we are introduced to the knowledge that there is discourse between Wickham and Darcy, although the reader (along with Elizabeth) is left in the dark about the true nature of their discord. Kaplan describes below how Austen sets this up in Chapter 15:
The drama of the novel reveals how travel away from one’s childhood home challenges the characters’ ingrained prejudices. The extended form of the triple-decker novel gives Austen room to develop more fully how the two gentlemen on the road cross paths when they arrive in Meryton, how one gentleman betrays the trust of the community, and how one gentlemen comes to a greater knowledge of himself and the world. When the two gentlemen of Derbyshire come face to face after their journeys south, the plot turns on appearances and reality, that is, on what it means to be a man whose integrity and honor qualify him to be recognized by society as a true gentleman. If, as Darcy says, a gentleman must act with “the wish of giving happiness” to others (366), Wickham’s status (like Proteus’s) is questionable.
It is Elizabeth who notices their terse reactions as they meet with each other in Meryton. As she is an observer of human nature, we aren’t surprised by this; neither she nor jane know what to make of this scene, yet it undoubtedly remains within Elizabeth’s mind during future interactions with both “gentleman.”
Many scholars have wondered if Austen was influenced by Shakespeare’s work and how she may have been inspired to create characters based on Shakespeare’s own writing moves.
In her notes, Kaplan states that “In Pride and Prejudice Austen uses an epistolary technique similar to that in The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Letters in both works serve comedic as well as serious purposes. If Silvia is wooed by a hand-delivered letter, a love letter written by Valentine on her own direction, then Elizabeth is wooed by the letter Darcy conveys by his own hand. Darcy’s long letter detailing the circumstances of the past will transform her opinion of him. Jane’s letter to Elizabeth during her visit to Derbyshire details Wickham’s treachery; Aunt Gardiner’s letter about the marriage arrangements for Wickham and Lydia details Darcy’s active involvement. Note that Lydia’s letter “reports” on her own elopement. The reader garners details only from Lydia’s uninformed point of view, and the reader does not get the gentleman’s version of the circumstances.”
I find it fascinating that this great rivalry may have been inspired by one of Shakespeare’s earlier plays. This is one of many connections that scholars have made between Austen and Shakespeare. This August an exhibit titled “Shakespeare, Austen and the Cult of Celebrity” is being held in Washington, DC, for anyone interested in learning more about some surprising parallels in these celebrated authors.
For anyone looking to learn more about Shakespeare’s work, you can check out this newly published Five Books interview with Emma Smith,where she discusses the best plays written by Shakespeare as Five Books recognize him in the first of a series marking the 400th year since the playwright’s death.
Has this chapter and these reflections left you with any ideas about these connections between Austen and Shakespeare? Is the Wickham/Darcy rivalry based on Shakespeare’s early play? What are your ideas and insights about this chapter, including all that is taking place right under Elizabeth’s watchful eyes? Please comment below and tell us your thoughts.